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26 Day Cape to Kruger [NACVJ]
Cape Town - Table Mountain
Fish River Canyon
Ais - Ais and Fish River Canyon Surrounds
Namib Naukluft Park
Etosha National Park
Chobe National Park - Botswana
Victoria Falls and surrounds - Zimbabwe
Kwa Madwala Game Reserve
Kruger National Park
Highlights: Namib Desert - Himba Tribe - Okavango Delta - Victoria Falls - Kruger National Park
Countries Visited: South Africa, Namibia, Botswana and Zimbabwe
DETAILS: Trip Code: NACVJ Length: 26 Days / 25 Nights Min / Max People: 2 / 18 Vehicle: Adventure Truck Departure Point: 8.00 am, Nomad Adventure Tours, 39 Castle Street, (Corner Castle & Burg Streets), Cape Town, South Africa. Tel: +27 (0) 82 578 2199, www.nomadtours.co.za End Point: Garden Court O.R. Tambo International Airport, 2 Hulley Road, Isando Ext. 3, Kempton Park, Gauteng, South Africa. Tel: +27 11 392 1062
*Note: All information is subject to change without prior notice. Travel times and accommodation can change depending on road or weather conditions, etc. These are used as a guideline only. On our longer tours it is possible that your crew, truck and fellow travellers will change due to our unique tour linking system. On some of our tours, camping and accommodated clients will be travelling together with a maximum number of participants of 18.
Note: All information is subject to change without prior notice. Travel times and accommodation can change depending on road or weather conditions, etc. These are used as a guideline only. On our longer tours it is possible that your crew, truck and fellow travellers will change due to our unique tour linking system. On some of our tours, camping and accommodated clients will be travelling together with a maximum number of participants of 18.
Day 1 South Africa – Cederberg Mountain Region Leaving Cape Town, there’s one last photo stop at Table View for a spectacular panorama view of Table Mountain. On the way to the Cederberg we will stop at a local wine farm for a wine tasting, followed by a guided hike in the Cederberg region. Upon arrival at our accommodation, your guides will give you a full briefing on the tour. Meals: Lunch, Dinner Accommodation: Two per room: Citrusdal Country Lodge - http://www.citrusdallodge.co.za Facilities: En-suites per room, hot showers, swimming pool, bar, internet Route: Cape Town to Clanwilliam ±245 km Travel time: ±5 hrs Activity package: Guided walk in Cederberg region Included Highlight: Wine tasting – Piketberg local wine farm
Day 2 Namibia – Gariep (Orange) River Today we travel through the Northern Cape and Namaqualand, stopping at the remote town of Springbok for any last requirements. After crossing the Namibian border we check into the lovely chalets overlooking the river that forms the border between South Africa and Namibia. Meals: Breakfast, Lunch, Dinner Accommodation: Two per room: Felix Unite Cabanas - www.felixunite.com/accommodation/cabanas Facilities: En-suite per room, hot showers, bar, internet café, swimming pool, water not drinkable Route: Clanwilliam to Orange River ±470 km Travel time: ±8-9 hrs and a border crossing Border posts: South Africa: Vioolsdrift, Tel: +27 (27) 277 618 760, Open 24 hours. Namibia: Noordoewer, Tel: +264 (0) 63 297 122, Open 24 hours.
Day 3 Gariep (Orange) River – Fish River Canyon/Ai-Ais This morning there’s the optional chance to canoe down the Gariep River (in the summer) or to spend some time relaxing in the camp along the river. After lunch we travel north to the Fish River Canyon and take a scenic hike along the rim in order to gain some perspective as to just how large this natural phenomenon is, later we return to Ai-Ais to check in to our accommodation and enjoy the hot springs. Optional Activities: Half-Day Canoe Adventure. Meals: Breakfast, Lunch, Dinner Overnight: Two per room: Ai Ais Resort - www.nwr.com.na/ai_ais_hotsprings_spa.html Facilities: En-suite per room, hot springs, hot showers, bar, swimming pool Route: Orange/Gariep River to Fish River Canyon ±255 km Travel time: ±4-5 hrs Included Highlight: Scenic walk along the rim of Fish River Canyon
Day 4 Namib-Naukluft Park The Namib-Naukluft NP is one of Namibia’s geographic gems and at 50,000km2, is one of the largest parks in Africa. There are massive sand dunes in the Sossusvlei desert area as well as the remarkable landscape. Our lodge is situated outside the park. Meals: Breakfast, Lunch, Dinner Accommodation: Two per room: Hammerstein Lodge and Rest Camp - www.hammerstein.com.na Facilities: En-suite per room, hot showers, pool, bar. Route: Ais Ais to Namib Naukluft ±530 km Travel time: ±7-9 hrs
Day 5 Namib-Naukluft National Park We have a full day in the Namib-Naukluft National Park that starts with a walk up Dune 45 for an amazing view and photo opportunity. Later we will have the opportunity to be transported into Sossusvlei. In the afternoon there is a short walk into Sesriem Canyon. Optional Activities: Transfer to Deadvlei Meals: Breakfast, Lunch, Dinner Accommodation: Two per room: Hammerstein Lodge www.hammerstein.com.na Facilities: En-suite per room, hot showers, pool, bar Route: Hammerstein Lodge to Sesriem ±200km (round trip) Included Highlights: Hike up Dune 45, walk into Sesriem Canyon
Day 6/7 Swakopmund We have a full day in the Namib-Naukluft National Park that starts by being transported into Sossusvlei. Later we travel to Dune 45 where you have the chance to hike up Dune 45 for an amazing view and photo opportunity. In the afternoon there is a short walk into Sesriem Canyon. Optional Activities: Dinner Out, Quad biking, Sand boarding, Sky Diving, Scenic Flights etc Meals: Breakfast x 2, Lunch x 1 Accommodation: Two per room: Stay@Swakop: http://www.stay-at-swakop.com/ Facilities: En-suite, hot showers, bar, laundry, internet Route: Hammerstein to Swakopmund ±395 km Travel time: ±6-7 hrs Included Highlight: Guided desert walk
Day 8 Swakopmund - Khorixas Today we head inland towards Khorixas, stopping en-route at Spitzkoppe, where we will enjoy some time exploring the enormous granite monoliths with our guide. In the afternoon we will visit the Petrified Forest (might be done the following morning). Meals: Breakfast, Lunch, Dinner Accommodation: Two per room: Igowati Lodge: http://www.igowatilodge.com/ Facilities: En-suite, hot showers, pool, bar, curio-shop Route: Swakopmund to Khorixas ±400 km Travel time: ±4-5 hours plus the time spent visiting sites. Activity package: Visit to Spitzkoppe and the Petrified Forest
Day 9 Kamanjab - Himba Tribe Today we journey towards Kamanjab. Driving through Damaraland, we will spend time with some of the semi-nomadic Himba people. The Himba are a pastoral people and are easily recognisable by their unique style of hair and dress. Meals: Breakfast, Lunch, Dinner Accommodation: Two per Room: Oase Guest House: www.namibweb.com/oasehouse.htm Facilities: En-suites, swimming pool, bar, internet connection Route: Khorixas to Kamanjab ±115 km Travel time: ±2-3 hrs (if rainy season, alternative route will be taken due to bad road conditions) Activity package: Guided visit to the Himba tribe
Day 10/11 Etosha National Park We travel south-east to Etosha NP. The open plains allow spectacular elevated game viewing from the truck whilst on game drives. Our quality bungalow accommodations, which both boast floodlit night water holes, are inside the park. Day 10 Meals: Breakfast, Lunch, Dinner Accommodation: Two per Room: Halali www.nwr.com.na/halali_camp.html Facilities: En-suites, hot showers, bar, shop, swimming pool, waterhole, drinkable water Route: Kamanjab to Etosha National Park ±170 km Travel time: ±3-4 hrs Included Highlight: Afternoon game drive in Nomad truck Day 11 Meals: Breakfast, Lunch, Dinner Accommodation: Two per Room: Okaukuejo www.nwr.com.na/okaukuejo_camp.html Facilities: En-suites, hot showers,bar, shop, swimming pool, waterhole, drinkable water Included Highlight: Full day game drive in Nomad truck
Day 12 Windhoek En-route to Namibia’s capital, Windhoek, we stop at a craft market where you can buy authentic African carvings and paintings. On arrival in Windhoek we take a short driving tour around the city in our truck. Optional Activities: Dinner out Meals: Breakfast, Lunch Accommodation: Two per Room: Arebbusch Travel Lodge - http://www.arebbusch.com/ Facilities: En-suite, hot showers, wireless, swimming pool, bar, laundry, restaurant Route: Etosha National Park to Windhoek ±430 km Travel time: ±7-9 hrs (Long Day) Included Highlight: Craft market en-route; short city tour in Nomad truck
Day 13 Botswana - Ghanzi We say goodbye to Namibia and cross the Botswana border. Later we arrive at our lodge in Ghanzi and this evening we experience some traditional tribal dancing from the local San community. Optional Activities: Bushman walk. Meals: Breakfast, Lunch, Dinner Accommodation: Two per Room: Ghanzi Trail Blazers Facilities: En-suites, bar, swimming pool, hot showers Route: Windhoek to Ghanzi ±440 km Travel time: ±8-9 hrs and a border crossing Border posts: Namibia: Buitepos, Tel: +264 62 560401, Open: 07h00-24h00. Botswana: Mamanu, Tel: +267 (0) 659 2013/2064, Open: 07h00-24h00
As we cross the border we’ll start to see villagers, cattle, donkeys and sheep along the side of the highway. Sometimes the donkeys and cows sit in the middle of the road and any amount of horn blowing won't get them out of the road. Independent since 1966, Botswana (formally a British protectorate) has three of the world’s richest diamond mines and this has made Botswana quite a wealthy nation. Now 40 years old, it is known as the African success story. Politically stable and with the foresight to invest in education, healthcare, high economic standards and without the racial issues that have plagued other countries, Botswana has the best economy in sub-Saharan Africa. The government has employed a strategy of high income - low impact tourism. This is where they reduce the number of tourists entering any area of the country by charging a lot more than neighbouring countries, thereby making it more restrictive for the budget traveller.
Day 14/15/16 Maun – Okavango Delta Maun is well known as the gateway to the Okavango Delta. We spend one night in Maun and prepare for this Delta excursion. Please pack a small overnight bag for your stay in the Okavango Delta. Small planes transport us over this amazing area to our tented camp. Once in the Delta we take a nature walk with a local expert and a guided afternoon boat cruise. If the water level allows there will also be a traditional mokoro (dug-out canoe) trip.
Please note: If you have not purchased the Activity Package you will stay at the accommodation in Maun during the Delta Excursion on day 15 & 16. Day 14 Meals: Breakfast, Lunch, Dinner Accommodation: Two per Room: Sitatunga http://www.deltarain.com/ Facilities: Hot showers, En-suites, bar, swimming pool, laundry Route: Ghanzi to Maun ±530 km Travel time: ±5-6 hrs Day 15 Meals: Breakfast, Lunch, Dinner Accommodation: Two per Meru Tent: Moremi Crossing www.gunns-camp.com/moremi_crossing.php Facilities: En-suite, bar, hot water, swimming pool, laundry, shop Activity package: Flight from Maun to Moremi Crossings approx 30min, nature walk with local expert and guided afternoon boat cruise along the Delta channels Luggage Restriction: 10kg luggage per person, No bottled water allowed on flight, can be purchased at Moremi Crossing Day 16 Meals: Breakfast, Lunch, Dinner Accommodation: Two per Meru Tent: Moremi Crossing www.gunns-camp.com/moremi_crossing.php Facilities: En-suite, bar, hot water, swimming pool, laundry, shop
Day 17 Nata We leave the Delta behind us and travel east towards the town of Nata, near the Makgadikgadi Pans. The shady tree canopy surrounding the lodge is a hive of activity, with a bird feeding area and active water feature providing the bird watcher with the opportunity of viewing a variety of species from the comfort of the pool deck. The Helmeted Guineafowl, Crested Francolin, Yellow Hornbill, Pied and Arrowmarked Babblers, Glossy Starling, Meyers Parrot and Paradise Whydah are just some of the species you may encounter during your stay at the lodge. Meals: Breakfast, Lunch, Dinner Accommodation: Two per Room: Nata Lodge: http://www.natalodge.com/ Facilities: En-suites, bar, swimming pool Route: Maun to Gweta ±200 km Travel time: ±3-4 hrs Activity package: Scenic flight back to Maun
Day 18 Chobe National Park After continuing north to Kasane, we enjoy a sunset river cruise on the Chobe River (in the National Park) where animals such as hippos, buffalo and elephants are plentiful. Optional Activities: Chobe Game Drive (next morning) Meals: Breakfast, Lunch, Dinner Accommodation: Two per Room: Thebe River Lodge http://www.theberiversafaris.com/ Facilities: Hot showers, En-suites, bar, swimming pool Route: Nata to Kasane ±310 km Travel time: ±6-8 hrs Activity package: Sunset Boat Cruise in the Chobe NP
Day 19/20 Zimbabwe - Victoria Falls After an early morning optional game drive we cross into Zimbabwe where we have a short briefing on all the optional activities available here. Then we enter the much-anticipated Victoria Falls NP where we will experience the might of the great Zambezi River Optional Activities: White Water Rafting, Bungee Jump, Elephant Excursion and many more. Meals: Breakfast x 2, Lunch x 1 Accommodation: Two per Room: Elephant Hills Resort http://www.elephanthillshotel.com/ Facilities: En-suite, bar, swimming pool, hot showers, laundry, restaurant Route: Kasane to Vic Falls ±100 km Travel time: ±2 hrs and a border crossing Activity package: Vic Falls National Park Entrance Border posts: Botswana: Kazangula Road, Tel: +267 62 50320, Open: 06h00-20h0 Zimbabwe: Kazangula Road, Open: 06h00-18h00
Day 20 Victoria Falls Most people will spend the day on one of the many activities on offer here such as a walk with lions or a helicopter flight over the Victoria Falls. Optional Activities: Lunch, dinner, white water rafting, bungee jump, elephant excursion and many more. Meals: Breakfast Accommodation: Two per Room: Elephant Hills Resort www.africansunhotels.com Facilities: En-suite, bar, swimming pool Day 22 Palapye / Martinsdrift to Johannesburg Another early departure, we enter into South Africa. Covering the next 450 – 550 km on sealed roads we should get to Johannesburg as early as possible. Take the time to enjoy one of the many local restaurants located in the area. Optional activities: All Meals. Meals: No meals included. Overnight: Garden Court OR Tambo - http://www.tsogosunhotels.com/garden-court/or-tambo-international-airport/pages/overview.aspx#.UvNtg_mSyCo Facilities: Swimming pool, bar, internet café, hot showers, drinkable water, shop, restaurant Route: Palapye to Johannesburg. ±550 km Travel time: ±8-9 hrs and a border crossing Day 23 Greater Kruger National Park An early start from Johannesburg, we travel through the Province of Mpumalanga en route to the breathtaking Kruger National Park. This afternoon we enter the greater Kruger National Park area where we will be spending the next 3 nights. After settling in we enjoy an evening game drive followed by local dancing and dinner. Meals: Lunch, Dinner Accommodation: Two per permanent tent: Nkambeni Reserve: www.nkambeni.co.za Facilities: En-suite, hot showers, bar, drinkable water, internet, swimming pool, shop Route: Johannesburg to Greater Kruger National Park. ±350 km Travel time: ±8-10 hrs Activity Package: Evening game drive in the Reserve
Day 24 Kruger National Park Today we start with a morning game walk before proceeding into the Kruger National Park. We enjoy an afternoon game drive from the comfort of our Nomad Truck. On the way keep your eyes open for more wildlife. Our truck gives us a more elevated view of the park and the ability to spot big cats and other smaller game that can be hiding in the vegetation. After spending a full day in the Kruger National Park, we make our way back to our accommodation in the greater Kruger area. Meals: Breakfast, Dinner Accommodation: Two per permanent tent: Nkambeni Reserve: www.nkambeni.co.za Facilities: En-suite, hot showers, bar, drinkable water, internet, swimming pool, shop Route: Greater Kruger National Park to Kruger National Park ±150 km Travel time: We will be game driving through the park for the duration of the day Activity Package: Morning bush walk Included Highlight: Afternoon game drive in Nomad Truck through Kruger National Park Day 25 Kruger National Park Today we have a full day of game viewing planned in an open 4x4 vehicle inside Kruger National Park. This gives you some fantastic photo opportunities so keep your eyes open for Elephant, Lion, Leopard, Rhino and Buffalo, known as Africa’s ‘Big Five’ as well as many other species of animals and birds. Meals: Breakfast, Dinner Accommodation: Two per permanent tent: Nkambeni Reserve: www.nkambeni.co.za Facilities: En-suite, hot showers, bar, drinkable water, internet, swimming pool, shop Route: We will be game driving through the park for the duration of the day Activity Package: Full Day Game Drive in open 4x4 safari vehicle Included Highlight: Full Day Game Drive in Nomad Truck
Day 26 Panorama Route – Johannesburg This morning we depart the greater Kruger area and journey back to Johannesburg. We travel along the spectacular Panorama Route. Blyde River Canyon is the 3rd largest canyon in the world, with breathtaking views of formations such as God’s Window and the Three Rondavels. We also see The Bourke’s Luck Potholes, which have been gradually eroded by the Treur River. Your tour ends on arrival in Johannesburg and most groups spend this last night together at a local restaurant Optional Activities: Dinner in a local Restaurant Meals: Breakfast, Lunch Accommodation: Own Arrangements / Post tour accommodation can be booked through Nomad Route: Kruger National Park Area to Johannesburg. ±530 km Travel time: ± 9-10hrs Included Highlight: Panorama Route, including God’s Window, Blyde River Canyon & Bourkes Luck Potholes
Inclusions & Exclusions
What’s included: Meals as indicated on the itinerary (unless otherwise specified, all meals are prepared and served at the Nomad truck), accommodation, registered guides and transport. We also include some of the highlights. These highlights are listed below in the day-by-day descriptions as “included highlights”. What’s excluded: All items of a personal nature, alcohol, snacks, souvenirs, tips and optional activities (see list for an indication of prices).
Activity Package This is an optional payment that covers what we consider to be ‘essential activities’ on our tours. Ideally we would include all of these, but not everyone can afford this. This payment is 100% transparent and is listed below. The Activity Package can be pre-purchased prior to your arrival or through your guide on day 1 of your tour. This dossier has been written with the inclusion of the Activity Package items. Activities: Cederberg Guided Walk R250 Guided desert walk with local expert R350 Himba Tribe visit R350 3 day Delta fly in R8150 Chobe National Park boat cruise R500 Vic Falls National Park entry R350 Evening game drive R230 Morning game walk R210 Full day 4x4 game drive – Kruger NP R550
Malaria: Malaria prophylactics are required. Very low risk of malaria in northern Namibia, but the risk increases to high risk as we travel north to Zimbabwe.
Health: Please inform us of any pre-existing conditions such as diabetes or asthma and any prescription medicine you may be taking. We also need to know about any food allergies or physical disability that you may have. Insurance: All clients require adequate Travel Insurance. Medical Insurance is not sufficient. Activity providers can refuse participation of activities, if the correct valid Travel Insurance is not provided. Travel insurance can be purchased via the Nomad website http://www.nomadtours.co.za/travel_insurance.html (Nomad World travel insurance is in no way affiliated with Nomad Tours) Visas: Please note that these are your responsibility. Some nationalities require visas for Namibia and Botswana. Most nationalities will require visas for Zimbabwe. See Pre Departure Booklet for more information. Climate: The African sun is very strong. Please use a factor 30 sunscreen and wear a hat. You should drink at least 3 litres of water per day to avoid dehydration. It can also get very cold during winter months on this route. Please see Pre Departure Booklet for detailed information. Currency and Banking: South African Rand is the most widely used currency on this route. US Dollar cash can be used for optional activities. In Botswana, the Pula is the local currency. You can change your Rand or Dollars to Pula when you enter Botswana. ATM’s do not always work in Botswana. Travellers cheques can take a long time to change into cash and often incur unreasonable charges. Credit Cards cannot always be processed – especially in remote areas. USD Notes printed before 2004 (i.e. the old style notes) will not be accepted and many places will not accept USD100 notes, so make sure to bring small notes for tips and craft markets. Please see Pre Departure Booklet for detailed information on each country. Vaccinations: No vaccinations are prescribed by law for the countries being visited on this tour. Please see the Pre Departure Information booklet for detailed information on vaccinations in Africa. Onward Travel: This tour can be linked with the Accommodated South African Explorer, and the Mozambique in Comfort. Pre and Post Tour Accommodation: If you require accommodation before or after your tour we can arrange this for you. We can also arrange airport transfers – contact your travel agent or Nomad to make these bookings. Arrival: Please be sure to arrive 1 day before your tour is due to depart. This will avoid any unforeseen problems. Departure: Please book your flight to depart the day after the tour officially ends. This is to account for any delays that we may experience due to unpredictable road conditions. *Note: All information is subject to change without prior notice. Travel times and accommodation can change depending on road or weather conditions, etc. These are used as a guideline only. On our longer tours it is possible that your crew, truck and fellow travellers will change due to our unique tour linking system. On some of our tours, camping and accommodated clients will be travelling together with a maximum number of participants of 18. Did you receive your Pre Departure Information Booklet? If not please contact us at email@example.com and we will e-mail you the document; alternatively visit us at 39 Castle Street, (Corner Castle & Burg Streets), Cape Town, to collect one. You can also download from our website at www.nomadtours.co.za. After hours contact number: +27 (0) 82 578 2199.
Tour Ends: We will drop you off at Garden Court O.R. Tambo International Airport www.southernsun.com/garden-court/or-tambo-international-airport/pages/overview.aspx . We suggest you book accommodation here for this evening through your travel agent or Nomad. If you choose to stay elsewhere you will need to arrange a transfer. Garden Court O.R. Tambo International is about 10km drive from O.R. Tambo (Johannesburg) International Airport. If you are flying out the following evening we highly recommend the day tour of Johannesburg city and Soweto as an informative and enjoyable way to spend the day.
TIPPING ON TOUR: Southern Africa: In general tipping in restaurants is generally expected and is around 10% for good service, more if you have received exceptional service, and, feel free not to tip at all if you received poor service. Tipping taxi drivers etc is really at your own discretion and not always expected. If in doubt please ask your guides.
Our guides do work hard but they are also paid at (and often above) industry levels for this work. Our crew can be tipped if you feel that they have done a good job and/or gone above and beyond the call of duty.
The best way to arrange tips is to elect one person in the group to collect the money. We recommend USD1-2 (or about R10-R20) per day per person, per guide as a fair tip. So if you have 3-crew on a tour, we would recommend that 3 envelopes are used and each crew member’s name written on one. Place what you feel is fair in to each envelope and the elected person can give these to the crew at the end of the tour. If you do not feel that the crew deserve a tip, please, do not tip them. You must remember that tipping is only for exceptional service and is not at all compulsory or expected. THE NOMAD AFRICAN TRUST: www.nomadafricantrust.co.za At Nomad we are passionate about the people, places and wildlife of Africa that make our tours so special. In order to give back we have set up the Nomad African Trust.
By the end of your tour you may have left-over local currency that you will not be able to change outside of its country of origin. Any assistance you could provide to the trust by donating this left over currency will be appreciated. Thank you for your help and please join our newsletter at the website above to receive regular updates on what we are doing to support our beneficiaries. GREEN SEATS - TRAVEL RESPONSIBLY IN AFRICA: Nomad gives you the opportunity to offset your carbon foot print by purchasing a “Green Seat”. If you would like to help Nomad making Africa Greener, simply choose the tick box on your booking form and we will take care of the rest. The Nomad African Trust will plant trees that are ecologically viable and that have very high carbon absorption. Green Seats can be purchased at departure or on tour with your guide. For more information on our “Green Seats”, please visit www.nomadtours.co.za/nomad_greenseats.html THANK YOU FOR TRAVELLING WITH NOMAD: At the end of your tour you will be provided with feedback forms. These forms are confidential and should be given to your crew in a sealed envelope. If you are not sure of the confidentiality of the feedback form please feel free to email us as well on firstname.lastname@example.org. Please make sure to also complete the feedback form as we use the answers on these forms to improve and maintain our service levels.
Accommodation providers are subject to change without notice, the accommodation listed in this dossier is our preferred supplier, but sometimes due to availability, we are unable to make use of the property listed in this dossier. If we cannot use the accommodation provider as listed we will substitute another property of similar standards, however, en-suite facilities are not always guaranteed.
Kwa Madwala Reserve: Kwa Madwala, meaning ‘place of rock’, is an independent wildlife conservancy covering 4 000 hectares of the Lowveld just south of the mighty Kruger National Park. It is relatively new, started 10 years ago, and has a well-managed eco-system supporting lion, elephant, rhino, leopard and a wide variety of other general game as well as a diverse birdlife. The focus is not only on the big game here, but also the small and the rare. Due to the small size of the reserve, guests can expect to get close to most species on a game drive. Kwa Madwala has also initiated a Leopard Conservation Project to provide a safe haven for leopards in the area, and gradually increase their numbers.
Victoria Falls: Victoria Falls, 1 700 m wide and 108 m high – is said to be the largest falls in the world. David Livingstone, the Scottish explorer, is believed to have been the first European to view the Victoria Falls and wrote: "It has never been seen before by European eyes, but scenes so wonderful must have been gazed upon by angels in their flight". The older, indigenous name of Mosi-oa-Tunya (‘the Smoke that Thunders’) is the name in official use in Zambia. Due to its immense power and size, the waterfall is surrounded by a rich mythology. The local Tonga people of the Zambezi believe that a river god, Nyaminyami, resides in the water in the form of an immense snake. When the Kariba Dam was built in the 1950s, the Zambezi River flooded three times, causing many deaths and much destruction. The local people believe Nyaminyami caused the terrible floods in his anger at the construction. The unusual form of Victoria Falls enables virtually the whole width of the falls to be viewed face-on, at the same level as the top, from as close as 60 metres, because the whole Zambezi River drops into a deep, narrow slot like chasm, connected to a long series of gorges. Few other waterfalls allow such a close approach on foot. The falls are formed as the full width of the river plummets in a single vertical drop into a chasm 60–120 m wide, carved by its waters along a fracture zone in the basalt plateau. The depth of the chasm, called the First Gorge, varies from 80 m at its western end to 108 m in the centre. The only outlet to the First Gorge is a 110 m-wide gap about two-thirds of the way across the width of the falls from the western end, through which the whole volume of the river pours into the Victoria Falls gorges. There are two islands on the crest of the falls that are large enough to divide the curtain of water even at full flood: Boaruka Island (or Cataract Island) near the western bank and Livingstone Island near the middle. At less than full flood, additional islets divide the curtain of water into separate parallel streams. The main streams are named, in order from Zimbabwe (west) to Zambia (east): Leaping Water (called Devil's Cataract by some), Main Falls, Rainbow Falls (the highest) and the Eastern Cataract.
Ai-Ais: Ai-Ais meaning 'burning water’ in the local Nama language, refers to the sulphurous thermal hot water springs found at the base of the mountains at the southern end of the Fish River Canyon. The Ai-Ais (pronounced “eye-ice”) springs originate deep under the riverbed and form an oasis in the extremely arid area. During the Nama uprising of 1903–07, when the local Herero and Nama people rebelled against German colonial rule, the hot springs were used by German military forces as a base camp. In 1915, the area was again used as a base by South African troops who were recovering from wounds during the South-West Africa Campaign. In the 1960s the spring was proclaimed a national monument and became a conservation area and on 16 March 1971, the camp was officially opened. The thermal water, rich in sulphur, chloride and fluoride, has an average temperature of about 60 degrees C and is said to be therapeutic.